Sustainable water management a solution for drought
Chau Tran Vinh, deputy head of the Department of Water Resources Management talks about how to sustainably manage water resources while climate change has triggered drought and salinity intrusion for coastal plains.
|Chau Tran Vinh, deputy head of the Department of Water Resources Management under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Photo courtesy of the Department of Water Resources Management|
Could you tell us about the recent hot weather in the central region?
The central region has suffered heat waves since April. Many places reportedly had record temperatures (some localities had temperatures of over 40 degrees Celsius). Accordingly, the flow in the basins is 35-60 per cent lower than the average amount of many previous years. In the face of prolonged hot weather, reservoirs are forced to increase the amount of water for electricity generation to ensure power supply to the national grid. This causes the water level in the reservoirs to drop, with several reservoirs falling below the dead storage, including reservoirs of Trung Son, Hua Na, Song Tranh 2, Song Ba Ha and Ka Nak.
Additionally, the flow in most major rivers in the central and central highlands is 15-50 per cent lower than the average of the same period over previous years. The number is 55-80 per cent in rivers in provinces of Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Thua Thien Hue and Phu Yen. The water level of large reservoirs in the regions has also been at a low level.
In response to the water shortage, reservoirs have to reduce their water discharge and actively store water to ensure the water supply for downstream areas according to the regulations of inter-reservoir operation procedures.
In a related movement, the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment has ordered localities to actively store water; efficiently use water and make plans to regulate water for the downstream areas of river basins. The ministry has also directed operators of hydroelectric reservoirs to closely work with local administrations to ensure water supply for the downstream areas until the end of the dry season in localities of Nghe An, Quang Nam, Da Nang, Gia Lai and Phu Yen. The ministry requires some reservoirs to prepare for providing water for local residents if severe drought occurs.
The dry season usually starts in January and ends in July in the central region, and starts in November and ends in April in the regions of south and central highlands.
How is the department running reservoirs under the inter-reservoir operation process to ensure water supply for lowland areas this year?
To ensure water supply for the lowland areas in this year’s dry season, the ministry urged the People’s Committees of localities to ask sectors and relevant agencies to store enough water. For the river basin of Vu Gia – Thu Bồn, the ministry told Da Nang Water Supply Joint Stock Company to properly regulate water and fully exploit water from An Trạch dam, especially when water in the Cau Do River suffers salinity, in order to ensure water supply for residents of Da Nang City.
Moreover, the ministry required authorised agencies to closely monitor the process of inter-reservoir operation in the central region. The agencies had to carefully calculate and balance the amount of water to reasonably discharge in reservoirs of river basins of Ca, Ba, Tra Khuc, especially Vu Gia –Thu Bon river basin which often suffers drought and salinity intrusion.
Additionally, the department also approved a project of the People’s Committee of Da Nang to use water in local hydroelectric reservoirs to supply local residents in the dry season.
The department has planned to provide maps and documents about underground water as well as technical assistance, manpower and equipment for localities to dig more wells and find water sources to prevent drought in affected areas.
What can the ministry do to better manage water resources?
The ministry has submitted to the Government 11 processes of inter-reservoir operation in major river basins, encompassing rivers of Hong (Red), Ma, Ca, Huong, Vu Gia – Thu Bon, Tra Khuc, Kon, Ba, Sê San, Sê-rê-pôc and Đồng Nai. The processes have been applied promptly, playing a key role in improving the effectiveness of water regulation in reservoirs. It helps minimise floods affecting people living in downstream of the reservoirs and gives them a chance to access water supply for daily life and crop production.
The department is co-operating with relevant sectors to develop a master plan for water-resource survey and a project to research water sources for people in remote and mountainous areas. It is expected to help better manage water resources in the country.
The department will finish the online automatic monitoring system to track activities of exploiting and using water in localities soon.